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Quote:Turkey Has Long Had Nuclear Dreams
Ankara has been contemplating developing nuclear weapons since the 1960s.
By Colum Lynch | November 1, 2019, 2:32 PM
In September, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan told members of his party that it is time for his country to acquire its own nuclear bomb.
Such a move would mark a sharp break from previous obligations by Turkey, a signatory of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, which bars non-nuclear states from acquiring nuclear weapons. But this is not the first time that Turkey—which has played host to U.S. nuclear weapons since the late 1950s—has craved its own nuclear weapons program.
As part of our Document of the Week series, Foreign Policy is posting a copy of a Sept. 26, 1966, memo describing to then-Ambassador Parker T. Hart a troubling conversation Clarence Wendel, the U.S. minerals attache at the U.S. Embassy in Ankara, had with a “reliable” Turkish scientist on Turkey’s nuclear ambitions.
The memo, one of 20 previously declassified documents on nuclear weapons in Turkey compiled this week by the National Security Archive, claims the source disclosed that officials from Turkey’s General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration “had been asked to cooperate with General [Refik] Tulga and Professor Omer Inonu (Professor of Physics at METU) [Middle East Technical University] in a Turkish program to develop an ‘Atomic Bomb.’”
Wendel, according to the memo, had flagged a number of developments suggesting the claim may be credible, including: “Repeated Turkish assertions that a 200 mega-watt nuclear reactor is planned for Istanbul”; the stockpiling of reserves of 300 to 600 tons of uranium in low-grade ore deposits; and the “delaying and haggling tactics of the Turkish negotiators during discussions of the extension of the bilateral agreement on peaceful uses of atomic energy which primarily concerned the transfer of safeguards responsibility from the U.S.A. to the International Atomic Energy Agency.”
Hart was skeptical that Turkey was bent on going nuclear, but he considered that it may have been preparing a contingency plan in the event that a nuclear arms race gained momentum in the region. They may be “simply putting themselves in a position to jump on the bandwagon in case there should be further serious breaks in the line against proliferation,” he wrote to John Howison, the Turkey country director in the State Department’s Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs.
Much of the history of the U.S. deployment of nuclear weapons in Turkey as part of a wider European deterrent force remains classified. But several documents compiled by the archive detail discussions related to the deployment of Honest John and Jupiter missiles in Turkey in 1959 and the early 1960s, and persistent concerns about the risk that they might be seized in the event that U.S. relations with a future Turkish leader deteriorated.
Relations with Turkey have been particularly strained in recent weeks, as Erdogan ordered an invasion of northern Syria in an attempt to crush Kurdish forces that have served as critical allies in the U.S.-led war against the Islamic State terrorist movement. In response, officials from the U.S. State and Energy departments began a review of contingency plans for the possible evacuation of some 50 tactical nuclear weapons stored at Turkey’s Incirlik Air Base, according to a report in the New York Times.
Quote:Erdogan says it's unacceptable that Turkey can't have nuclear weapons
September 4, 2019 / 9:27 PM / 3 months ago
ANKARA (Reuters) - Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan said on Wednesday it was unacceptable for nuclear-armed states to forbid Ankara from obtaining its own nuclear weapons, but did not say whether Turkey had plans to obtain them.
“Some countries have missiles with nuclear warheads, not one or two. But (they tell us) we can’t have them. This, I cannot accept,” he told his ruling AK Party members in the eastern city of Sivas.
“There is no developed nation in the world that doesn’t have them,” Erdogan said. In fact, many developed countries do not have nuclear weapons.
Turkey signed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty in 1980, and has also signed the 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, which bans all nuclear detonations for any purpose.
Erdogan hinted that he wanted the same protection for Turkey as Israel.
“We have Israel nearby, as almost neighbors. They scare (other nations) by possessing these. No one can touch them.”
Foreign analysts say Israel possesses a sizable nuclear arsenal. Israel maintains a policy of ambiguity around the nuclear issue, refusing to confirm or deny its capabilities.
Quote:China’s nuclear power technology assists Turkey in developing clean energy
By Gou Yawen (People's Daily Online) 17:12, December 17, 2019
A media team from Turkey concluded its one-week trip to China on Nov. 24, 2019, during which time journalists from the Turkish Ahaber Channel visited SPIC’s Shanghai and Shandong nuclear power projects, focusing on China’s independent CAP1400 nuclear power technology and nuclear power plant operation safety.
According to data from the Turkish government, more than 20 percent of the country's total energy demand is satisfied by coal power, which remains the primary source of electricity in Turkey. However, its negative impact on the environment also plagues Turkey. Data shows that each 1GW-class nuclear power plant only needs about 30 tonnes of nuclear fuel each year, while a thermal power station of the same size has to burn 3 million tonnes of coal each year. In addition, coal combustion brings emissions of CO2, SO2 and other gases, which puts pressure on the environment.
A poll conducted in 2018 by Konda, a climate information center and research company in Turkey, showed that most Turks were worried about climate change. In this context, as an efficient and clean energy source, nuclear power is gradually receiving attention in Turkey. In recent years, the country, which has been working to improve the domestic energy supply system, is actively developing nuclear power and has already built two nuclear power plants.
Meanwhile, in China, the nuclear power industry is facing strategic opportunities as a complete and mature nuclear power industry system has been established. China’s capacities for both major nuclear power equipment manufacturing and nuclear power plant construction are first in the world. Xu Yuming, Deputy Director of the Expert Committee of the China Nuclear Energy Association, believes that it is the right time for China to develop its global nuclear power industry, as the demand for nuclear power is growing around the world. For instance, the Vice Minister of Energy and Natural Resources Department of Turkey led a delegation to visit SPIC’s headquarter in 2017, at the same time as China was planning to participate in the construction of Turkey’s third nuclear power plant.
According to official data, some 45 countries worldwide, including China and Turkey, are now actively considering the promotion of nuclear energy projects. In light of this, China-Turkey cooperation in nuclear energy has been added to the agenda. At the “Belt and Road” Energy Ministerial Conference in October 2018, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu stated that Turkey fully supports the “Belt and Road” Initiative and is trying to integrate it with Turkey’s “Middle Corridor” Project. The fast dovetailing of the “Belt and Road” Initiative and Turkey’s “Middle Corridor” Project provides a huge opportunity for the two countries to deepen their nuclear energy cooperation. Recently, in an exclusive interview with People’s Daily Overseas Edition, the Turkish Ambassador to China Emin Onen expressed that Turkey hopes to strengthen cooperation with China in nuclear power in the future.
In 2016...In the same year, China-Turkey nuclear power cooperation also embraced new opportunities. As Turkey officially announced the cooperation on the peaceful use of nuclear energy with China, the China-Turkey nuclear energy cooperation agreement formally entered into force.
In the past three years, China’s nuclear power technology has continuously developed, and these technologies and safety concepts will also enter into Turkey through cooperation. As Hao said, China’s participation in the construction of Turkish nuclear power plants will further meet Turkey’s demands for clean energy, and the cooperation between energy companies of the two countries will also benefit local people in terms of employment and taxation.
(12-19-2019, 11:38 AM)lulldapull Wrote: Turkey needs to worry about its turkey ass economy before going into space. They are $450 billion in debt to Western banks and Er-Dog-An has bankrupted the country. Massive flight of capital and no jobs whatsoever for the younger generation. The country has become a basket case.