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Quote:In his book The Virus House, British researcher and journalist David Irving writes:
In June 1940, when battle had ceased in France and occupation reigned for four years, Germany’s positions in the nuclear race were very impressive and even frightening: Germany did not have large stores of heavy water, but to make up for this she seized the only heavy water factory in the world; she became the holder of thousands of tons of very pure uranium compounds and established control over an almost completed cyclotron; she had at her disposal cadres of physicists, chemists, and engineers not yet robbed of their vitality by all-out war; and her chemical industry was the most powerful in the world.”
If the Germans had managed to create an atomic bomb before the Americans and then put two or three bombs into two or three of the many hundreds of A-4 rockets launched at Britain, the world today might look completely different.
It is surprising that the primary reasons for the slow pace of work on the German atomic project were not technical. The lack of progress resulted instead from conflicts among high-level scientists and the regime’s arrogant and conde-scending attitude toward a discipline that lacked rocket science’s active promoters. From the first days of the war, the German economy was consumed by the imme-diate needs of one blitzkrieg after another.The Germans’ early military successes in Europe and the Soviet Union led the Germans to believe in the complete superi-ority of their military technology. And if that was the case, then why spend funds and divert efforts to new labor-intensive developments and scientific research proj-ects aimed at creating an even more perfect weapon?
But that was not the single cause of the German physicists’ failure. On this point I concur with the very competent research of David Irving, who writes in The Virus House, “In late 1940, German physicists had not foreseen any serious difficulties on the way to the military use of atomic energy....Having rejected graphite in January 1941, German scientists committed a fatal mistake. Now it is well known.” This error worked to the advantage of missile specialists because there clearly was not enough graphite in Germany for both fields of endeavor. We and the Americans also used graphite control surfaces to control missiles up until the mid-1950s. Now it is well known that it is better to use other meth-ods instead of control vanes of any material. But more than ten years of persist-ent work by specialists from the USSR and United States were required to switch to this method.
Who knows how the situation would have turned out if the mistake had been corrected in a timely manner. This mistake, which was fatal for the German atomic project, proved to be fortunate for humankind. It became the main obstacle and hindered the Germans from creating a critical reac-tor using graphite and uranium, in other words, the same type of reactor as the first operating reactor in the world, which the Americans created two years later . . .
As far as one can tell from the published research, neither Russian nor Ameri-can postwar researchers have fully appreciated how the Peenemünde rocketeers’ invention of graphite control surfaces saved humankind. The Germans were forced to use up their extremely limited stores of pure graphite.
Rockets and People: Volume I (NASA History) Paperback – April 29, 2013, p247-249.
Quote:Boris Evseyevich Chertok was a prominent Soviet and Russian rocket designer, responsible for control systems of a number of ballistic missiles and spacecraft. Chertok was born in 1912 in Poland, and his family moved to Moscow when he was three years old. Academician Chertok began his career as an electrician in Moscow before joining the aircraft design bureau of Viktor Bolkhovitinov in 1934.
In 1946, he joined the newly established NII-88 institute as head of the control systems department and worked hand-in-hand with famed Chief Designer Sergey Korolev.
Chertok became one of Korolev's closest aides in developing control systems for ballistic missiles and spacecraft, eventually becoming deputy chief designer of the famous OKB-1, the design organization that spun off from NII-88 in 1956 and was responsible for a remarkable string of space firsts of the early Soviet space program. Chertok participated in every major project at OKB-1, now the S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia, until his retirement from active work in 1991. Among his many contributions to the Russian space industry, he was closely involved in the launch of the world's first satellite, Sputnik, on October 4, 1957 and the first human spaceflight by Yuri Gagarin on April 12, 1961. Following his retirement, Chertok served as a senior consultant at RSC-Energia and published a series of memoirs, "Rockets and People," chronicling the history of the Russian space program.
http://web.archive.org/web/2019110707385...www.amazon DOT com/Rockets-People-I-NASA-History/dp/1484842677
Quote:The enrichement of Uranium-235 must of course reach 3% to 5% (low enriched uranium, LEU) to be used in nuclear reactors.
Uranium enriched to more than 20% uranium-235 is defined as highly enriched uranium (HEU). All HEU is weapons-usable, but the lower the enrichment level the greater the amount of material required to achieve a critical mass—the amount of material required to build a bomb.
States with nuclear weapons typically use so-called weapons-grade HEU, which is typically defined as 90% HEU or above, to minimize weapons’ size. Smaller and lighter nuclear weapons are much easier to deliver; ballistic missiles in particular can only deliver highly miniaturized nuclear weapons.
dani92, post: 11871786, member: 195630 Wrote:the info Europeans were there before
Quote:Published on Jan 25, 2016
Authorized reproduction of Bukharin.
See an extremely detailed bilingual version of 2500 years European History from early Romans to modern times!
Eternal Alexander - Vangelis
The Uruk-hai - Lord Of The Rings 2 Soundtrack
Hymne Des Chérubins - Divna & Melodi Choir
Zinjibar - Abdullah Ahmed/Seif Saleh
Terms - Harry Gregson-Williams
Dear Lord And Father Of Mankind - The Celebration Choir & Salvation Army Citadel Band
Mozart: Rondo alla Turca Sonata No. 11, KV 331 - Orchestra Italiana
Conquest Of Paradise - Vangelis
L'Internazionale - Coro dell'Armata Rossa
Lili marleen - Marlène Dietrich
La varsovienne - Chœur de l'armée soviétique, Boris Alexandrov
The Sacred War - The Red Flag Ensemble
Mon armée - Les Choeurs de L'Armée Rouge
(10-30-2019, 03:14 PM)lulldapull Wrote: Galactic Penguin, is there a Plan for Iran to set up its own space station? Or is it too early to even think of this?
Quote:Researchers have success in the design of manned orbital spacecraft
Design life of 14 days, orbital mission of up to 3 days with a crew of one to two astronauts.
Telecommunication antennas, solar arrays and radiators are installed outside the spacecraft.
Injection orbit of 250 × 200 km altitude, with operating altitude of 330 Km ± 5 km
Length of 5 m and diameter of 2.5 to 1.45 m, which is about four cubic meters volume
The mass of the propulsion module is 2.5 tons
The Reentry module has a mass of 2.5 tons.
Solar Electric system power: 1.00 average kW.
Batteries power: 0.2 kW
Quote:Iran Looks To Get In On Middle East Human Spaceflight Boom With Russia
John Sheldon October 23, 2019
The head of the Iran Space Agency (ISA), Morteza Barari, has said that Iran is looking to open discussions with Russia about the possibility of sending an Iranian astronaut to the International Space Station (ISS), according to Iranian press reports.
Barari’s announcement echoes a similar statement made in early October 2019 by Iran’s Minister of Information and Communications Technology, Mohammad-Javad Azari Jahromi, who has also openly called for talks with Russia about training and sending an Iranian to the ISS.
“In order to send an astronaut explorer [to the ISS], we should launch negotiations with Russia. There are many explorers from different countries at the ISS. We are also primed at studying the possibility to send an astronaut to the space station in cooperation with other nations, for example Russia,” Barari said in an interview with Iran’s Mehr News Agency.
The announcement by Iranian officials follows a flurry of human spaceflight activity and talks with Russia in the Middle East. In late September 2019 the United Arab Emirates sent its first astronaut, Hazza Al Mansoori, to the ISS with Russian assistance. Russia is also known to have offered similar astronaut training and launch services to Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey.
On his state visits to Saudi Arabia and the UAE in mid-October 2019, Russian President Vladimir Putin reiterated Russia’s pledge to assist those countries in their space ambitions.
Often left unmentioned in much of the regional coverage of Russia’s offers to send Arab astronauts to the ISS is the fact that Moscow expects countries to pay for their astronaut’s training, launch, and other expenses. The cost of sending an individual for rigorous astronaut training, launch, stay on the ISS, and return to Earth can run into tens of millions of dollars.
For countries like Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE this kind of expenditure can be afforded and justified to their respective publics.
Egypt has also publicly expressed an interest to send one of its citizens to the ISS with Russian help, but questions as to whether Cairo can afford this kind of mission or whether Russia is willing to do so for free remains unknown.
For Iranian ambitions to send an astronaut to the ISS, the issue is not just one of affordability given the parlous state of Iran’s economy due to chronic mismanagement and the international sanctions regime. Rather, the very sanctions themselves would likely prevent Russia from allowing Iran to send one of its citizens to the ISS. Even though an Iranian astronaut would stay on board the Russian ISS module (effectively Russian sovereign territory), they would have to interact with other fellow astronauts from countries that are sanctioning Iran and, in the course of their ISS duties, go to the ISS modules owned and operated by the United States, European Space Agency, and Japan.
Even if Russia wanted to send an Iranian astronaut to the ISS, it is more than likely that other ISS international partners would strongly oppose such a mission.
Quote:Iran's Communication Satellite Developing Plan 2026 of the Iranian Space Research Center (I.S.R.C.) has revealed its future space launcher's payload capabilities:
• Nahid-1, 50 Kg, LEO, Safir-1 SLV
• Nahid-2, < 100 Kg, LEO, Safir-2 SLV
• IRANSAT-1, 1 ton, GEO, Safir-3A SLV
• IRANSAT-2, 3 tons, GEO, Safir-3C SLV
http://web.archive.org/web/2019080110491...AEOXQg.jpg ; https://archive.fo/TVRNZ/e148f10050430ae...8610a6.jpg ; https://defence.pk/pdf/proxy.php?image=h...286338f0c9
▲ 13. Iran's roadmap for communication satellites. From official presentation of the Iranian Space Research Center.
The existence of an even more powerful heavy space launcher, able to place 20 tons into LEO, has also been revealed, the Safir-4.